Everyone knows the word «climate», but what is it and what impact does it have on our lives? Each area on Earth has its own characteristics. They are expressed in the differences of flora and fauna, terrain, the presence or absence of water, weather. It is the nature of the weather that is observed in certain historical periods and remains unchanged, largely from year to year, is called climate. Just as the diversity of animate and inanimate nature, which we have mentioned above, depends on climate, the climate itself depends on the surrounding world. All sectors of the economy of a particular area arise and develop depending, first of all, on what kind of climate there is. After all, it is impossible to grow bananas in the north. And in the deserts or tundra does not grow building timber.
Climate is influenced and shaped by climate-dependent factors depending on geographic conditions. These include: the amount of radiation from the sun reaching a specific surface of the Earth; atmospheric circulation processes; biomass volumes. These factors that determine climate may vary considerably depending on the geographical latitude of the area. It is the latitude that determines at what angle the sunlight falls on the surface of the globe and, accordingly, how intensively the surface located at different distances from the equator will warm up.
The thermal regime of a particular area depends to a great extent on its proximity to the oceans, which function as heat accumulators. The land surface bordering the oceans has a milder climate than the climate in the depths of the continents. Daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations around large volumes of water are smoother than in the continental climate closer to the center of the continents. There is more rainfall here and the sky is often covered with clouds. On the contrary, the continental climate is characterized by sharp temperature changes and less precipitation.
No less impact on the climate and terrain. Everyone knows the frames of climbers in the mountains, who, starting from green meadows at the foot of the mountain, stand on snow-capped peaks in a few days. This happens due to the fact that with each kilometer above sea level, the ambient air temperature drops by 5-6 ° С. In addition, the mountain systems prevent the movement of both warm and cold air masses. Often the climate on one side and on the other side of a mountain range can vary significantly. A striking example of this is the difference in air temperature and humidity in Sochi and in the Stavropol Territory, located on opposite sides of the Caucasus Mountains.