Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
English mathematician, physicist, alchemist and historian. He was born into a farmer’s family.
At the age of 12 he entered the Grantham school, in 1661-in the College of St. Trinity (Trinity College) of Cambridge University as a subsider (the so-called poor students who performed to earn the duties of servants in College).
After graduating from University, Newton received a bachelor’s degree in 1665. In 1665-1667 he developed mainly those ideas that led him to the creation of differential and integral calculus, the invention of the mirror telescope, the discovery of the law of universal gravitation.
In Cambridge, he conducted experiments on the decomposition of light. In 1668 Newton was awarded a master’s degree. In 1671, Newton built the reflecting telescope, the second — largest size and best quality. Newton has substantiated by the finest experiments the idea of monochromatic light rays and the periodicity of their properties, which are the basis of physical optics.
In 1687 Newton published his grandiose work «mathematical principles of natural philosophy» (briefly — «Principles»), which laid the foundations not only of rational mechanics, but also of all mathematical natural science. «Beginnings» contained the laws of dynamics, the law of universal gravitation with effective applications to the movement of celestial bodies, the origins of the doctrine of motion and resistance of liquids and gases, including acoustics.
In 1705 for scientific research from Queen Anne elevated him to knighthood. In the last years of his life, Newton devoted much time to theology and ancient and biblical history. Newton is buried in the English national Pantheon —Westminster Abbey.