The domestication of the dog took place in the Upper Paleolithic (40–12 thousand years BC). More precisely, the date set is not yet possible. The Upper Palaeolithic was an extremely harsh epoch, since the coldest stage of the Wurm glaciation fell on it. So the appearance of an assistant in the hunt was most welcome. Interestingly, not the people, but the wolves themselves could have started the domestication process. More precisely, individual individuals, differing for some reason from their comrades in the pack. Such wolves came close to the people’s camps, skillfully abducting food debris, or hunting small rodents, who also climbed to the man in the hope of profit.
Self-domestication of the wolf is confirmed by some DNA studies in dogs. It turns out that modern individuals have very few so-called mitochondrial pedigrees. This means that very few wolves decided to become a «friend of man.» At the same time, these individuals had noticeable differences in the genes in comparison with their relatives. That is, not ordinary wolves, but rather “crazy” animals with deviations in behavior came to be friends with a person. However, other studies, on the contrary, find a huge number of primary primitive dog breeds, which indicates that domestication happened often. The most plausible is the version that rogue rogue wolves were subjected to domestication. Among them could well be «genetic mutants», as well as old or sick individuals who came to the person to feed on garbage. So the ancestors of the dog still domesticated themselves, preferring the death of «work» on the person. This process began a long time ago: archaeologists have found the fossilized bones of a wolf in places of human settlements older than 100,000 years BC.
Changing the psychology of a wild predator in the course of domestication, man changed himself. Scientists suggest that people took over the idea of ??marking the territory from dogs. Hunting group prompted homo sapiens again new tailed friends. Signal exchange with the help of body and gestures could also be taken over from tamed wolves, who actively exchange hidden messages while hunting.
The modern dog is already very different from the wolf. Not only the appearance, but also the device body. If we compare equal in size to a wolf and a dog, then the first skull will have 20% more and the brain 30% more. The temporal bone of wolves is large, convex and almost spherical. In dogs, on the contrary: the bone is small, compressed and slightly concave. Wolf teeth more than a dog, and the jaw muscles are much stronger and stronger. The paws of a wolf are twice the size of a dog. As for the question who the person first tamed — the cat or the dog — the answer is well known: the dog is the first pet. The cats were then simply useless, and to feed the parasites in the Upper Paleolithic meant wasting meager supplies in vain.