Orenburg has an unusual history, it was only laid three times in different places. In 1735, the first fortress was founded at the confluence of the River Or into the Yaik River. In 1740, the Orsk fortress was laid on Red Mountain. And only in 1743 the final place of the city on the bank of the Ural River was chosen. Therefore, Orenburg can be called one of the most interesting and interesting cities in the Russian Federation.
Orenburg was one of the major trade centers of Kazakhstan with Russia and Central Asia. Large caravans with various goods from Khiva, Tashkent and Bukhara took place here. Also, the city became famous for its military successes during the uprising of Emelyan Pugachev. The siege of Orenburg lasted about six months, but the rebels failed to take the main fortress. In the novel by A.S. Pushkin, The Captain’s Daughter, the history of the Orenburg Territory is described in more detail.
In 1877, the railway was opened to Samara, and later to Tashkent. Various productions have also opened: sawmills, oil mills, mills, and woodworking. Trade was even more intensive, and the city gradually turned into a large shopping center.
In 1966, a natural gas field was discovered near Orenburg. Today, gas processing enterprises are city-forming. The leading industries of the city are: chemical, fuel, petrochemical, metalworking and mechanical engineering.
Orenburg is famous for down products. In 1960, the plant was formed downy shawls. Downy cobwebs and shawls have long been a hallmark of the city. These scarves are famous for the subtlety of work, beauty of decoration and originality of the pattern. It is their praise in his song L. Zykina.
To date, various works on the reconstruction of historical centers and monuments are under way in Orenburg. Restored buildings of the Central Market, Gostiny Dvor, as well as monuments: a monument to A.S. Pushkin, the stele of the founding of the city of Orenburg, the monument «Orenburg-front».