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The Roman Empire The Roman Empire / Римская империя The Roman Empire had a huge task in front of them while it was first starting out and while it was becoming a dominant dynasty in the early civilizations. The main problem that the book "Discovering the Global Past" points out is how the Roman Empire found itself growing a little too quickly. The Roman Empire started out very small...


U.S. Financial System U.S. Financial System / Финансовая система США Corporations have the need to raise capital for a number of reasons. Smaller firms need capital to start up operations. Larger firms need capital to expand operations and to finance inventory. There are various ways in which a firm can raise capital through the financial system and numerous individuals and entities...


Microburst Microburst / Микропорыв There are many safety factors that pilots have to take into consideration while completing a safe flight. Everything has to be taken into mind when planning a flight. From weight and balance to preflight inspections. One safety factor that is impossible to have control over is weather. There are many aspects of weather that can affect an aircraft,...


Romanian Orphanages Romanian Orphanages / Румынские сироты Imagine a hospital that, at one time ran smoothly helping the public, now with the primary objection of taking care of the thousands of abandoned infants and children. This is the reality in Romania when Nicolae Ceausescu was in power. In 1966 he created an Anti-Abortion/Contraception law in order to raise the population and...


Introducing Christian Ethics Introducing Christian Ethics / Введение в христианскую этику The book that I have chosen to do my book review on is Introducing Christian Ethics, written by Henlee H. Barnette. This book deals with many Christian ethical decisions based on biblical foundations that are applied to various major problems. Some of the major problems pertain to the self,...


The Northern lights

Топик на английском по теме: Science / Наука

The Northern lights / Северное сияние

The Northern lightsThe Northern lights is the name of the light phenomenon that is often seen in the northern regions of the world.The scientific name for the phenomenon is «Aurora Borealis», often called the aurora for short.The bright lights of the aurora are collisions between electrically charged particles from the sun that enter the earth’satmosphere.Since all the planets in our galaxcy are exposed to solar wind their atmospheres are electrically charged with energetic particles causing them to have auroras However every Planet has a different magnetic field. Planets like Venus, which has no magnetic field, causes it to have an very irregular aurora. Where as Planets like Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, have auroras in the shape of oval shaped crowns of light on both hemispheres.

What causes the aurora are particles called electrons and protons that are energized in an environment. Which it draws its energy from the interaction of the Earth’s magnetosphere and with solar wind. A magnetosphere is the volume of space that surrounds the Earth. The reason why the Earth has a magnetosphere is because of Earth’s internal magnetic field that extends to space until it is balanced by a solar wind. When a solar wind encounters the Earth’s magnetic field, it bends the field unless the field gets too strong. The distance at which a solar wind and a magnetic field of the Earth balances each other is about 60,000 km away, or 1/10 of the distance to the moon.When the magnetic field in the solar wind and the magnetic field of the magnetosphere are anti-parallel, the fields melt together, and the solar wind drags the magnetospheric field and plasma along.Then the magnetosphere responds by dumping electrons and protons into the high latitude upper atmosphere where the energy of the plasma can be dissipated. This then results in an aurora.The lights can be seen above both the northern and southern hemispheres on Earth.They are known as Aurora borealis in the north and Aurora australis in the south.

The Northern Lights may appear in manycolours, such as pale green and pink which are the most common. Moreover Shades of red, yellow, green, blue, and violet have been reported by scientist. The lights may appear in many forms such as patches or scattered clouds of light to streamers, arcs, rippling curtains or shooting rays. There have been many questions conjured up among residents of the north about wheather the Aurora Borealis makes sounds. There have been many attempts to record sound during a northern light phenomenon but all of whom attempted failded to produce any proof that such sounds exist. But there have been many reports throughtout the centuries thus the idea that the Aurora Borealis produces sound hasn’t been ignored by scientist.

Though the northern lights, are often seen in the far northern parts of the planet. The lights may be seen in many regions on the Earth.There were more than 160 aurora sightings late Friday August 11 and early Saturday August 12 that were reported to the Auroral Activity Observation Network. Most reports were from the northern United States and Canada. But there were also reports from southern California, Nevada, Texas, New Mexico and Utah , Seminole, Texas, about 32 degrees north latitude; Lubbock, Texas and Anza, California, 33 degrees; Wrightwood, California, 34 degrees; Las Vegas, Nevada and Harrison, Arkansas, 36 degrees; Rio Rancho, New Mexico, roughly 35 or 36 degrees; Stokesville, Virginia, 38 degrees; Lucas Point Park, Kansas, 39 degrees; Fillmore, Utah, 38 degrees along with Emerald, Nebraska, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Champaign, Illinois at 40 degrees north.The aurora borealis has fascinated, and terrified humans for thousands of years. As people began to seek explanations for the light phenomenon they came up with many theories, myths , and legends about the phenomenon.And there are still many unsolved questions about the northern light phenomenon scientist have yet to answer.

The aurora borealis (The Northern Lights) has intrigued many ancient people all through out history of mankind . Some drawing created by Cro-Magnon people on the walls and ceilings of caves in Southern France appeare to depict the northern lights. The rock paintings are thought to be the very frist recordings of the northern lights in the history of mankind that dated back more than 30, 000 years ago.Many well known legends, myths and superstitions have been conjured from Northern Light phenomenon throughout the years. The early dragon legends of China and Europe are said to have originated from the aurora. Some cultures around the world have also regarded the sighting of the aurora as a sign of royal birth but also of death, destruction and the precursor for war.The Aboriginals of Scandinavia, the Sami, believed that the northern lights had supernatural powers to resolve conflicts and had auroral symbols on their magic drums.The Eskimos of North America believed that if you whistled at the aurora it would sweep down and take you from the earth. The aurora was named by a 17th Century scientist in France by the named of Pierre Gassendi whom applied the name the aurora. Which he named after Aurora, the Goddess of Dawn in Roman mythology. According to the Romans the Goddess of Dawn represented the eternal alternation of day and night. Many cultural groups around the world have legends about the northern lights. The oldest descriptions of the aurora are from Mediterranean countries and ancient China. Popular belief in Scandinavia linked the aurora to dead women, especially to dead virgins.

In China the aurora was believed to predict the forthcoming of births. In 344 BC, a Greek philosopher named Aristotle observed the aurora and compared its light with flames from known sources on Earth.There are at least five descriptions of the northern lights that exicist in the Old Testament. One of them is found in the first chapter of Ezekiel.In the 6th century BC, Ezekil, a profit-priest of ancient Israel, saw the aurora and wrote that «?a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the color of amber, out of the midst of the fire.» (Old Testament of the Bible, Ezekil 1:4). In ancient times, the waves of light could be seen flashing through the sky as far south as France and Italy, which struck fear into the population. Because Auroras rarely appeared that far south, the people were frightened by the sight, believing that the lights were warnings of illness, plague and death. Up until the18th century, the northern lights were often viewed with fear and were related to the concepts of heaven and hell. Though the northern lights have been obsevered all through out the history of man kind. We as humans have yet to understand the true essence of this natural light phenomenon.There are still many legends, myths and superstitions about the aurora borealis that have not been heard or have yet to come.

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