Тексты на английском Rss


The Roman Empire The Roman Empire / Римская империя The Roman Empire had a huge task in front of them while it was first starting out and while it was becoming a dominant dynasty in the early civilizations. The main problem that the book "Discovering the Global Past" points out is how the Roman Empire found itself growing a little too quickly. The Roman Empire started out very small...


U.S. Financial System U.S. Financial System / Финансовая система США Corporations have the need to raise capital for a number of reasons. Smaller firms need capital to start up operations. Larger firms need capital to expand operations and to finance inventory. There are various ways in which a firm can raise capital through the financial system and numerous individuals and entities...


Microburst Microburst / Микропорыв There are many safety factors that pilots have to take into consideration while completing a safe flight. Everything has to be taken into mind when planning a flight. From weight and balance to preflight inspections. One safety factor that is impossible to have control over is weather. There are many aspects of weather that can affect an aircraft,...


Romanian Orphanages Romanian Orphanages / Румынские сироты Imagine a hospital that, at one time ran smoothly helping the public, now with the primary objection of taking care of the thousands of abandoned infants and children. This is the reality in Romania when Nicolae Ceausescu was in power. In 1966 he created an Anti-Abortion/Contraception law in order to raise the population and...


Introducing Christian Ethics Introducing Christian Ethics / Введение в христианскую этику The book that I have chosen to do my book review on is Introducing Christian Ethics, written by Henlee H. Barnette. This book deals with many Christian ethical decisions based on biblical foundations that are applied to various major problems. Some of the major problems pertain to the self,...


The Pencil

Топик на английском по теме: Science / Наука

The Pencil

The Pencil / Карандаш

The pencil is an everyday tool. Some of its uses are for writing school papers, for completing schoolwork, and for drawing. There are many other uses for the pencil.

In 1564, N.J. Conte invented the pencil. He did so after another family tried but failed.

There are ten steps that you need to go through to make a pencil. Incense-cedar logs are cut into pencil blocks, and the pencil blocks are cut into pencil slats. Pencil slats are treated with wax and stain, and then a machine cuts grooves to accept the writing core. The writing cores are then placed into the grooves.

The next step is another grooved slat is glued into the first slat to make a sandwich, and the sandwich is made into pencil shapes by a machine. After that, the pencils are cut from the sandwich and are sanded smooth, and each pencil is painted. The last step is that a ferrule and eraser are crimped into place on each pencil. A ferrule is the metal ring around the eraser that holds it in place. Pencils were invented because most lead wasn’t being used. Today, lead pencils contain no lead. Instead of lead, they use a mixture of clay and graphite.

In 1821, Charles Dunbar discovered a graphite deposit in New England. It was certified as far superior to any graphite that was found before in the United States.

The center of a pencil is called the core. Today, the writing cores are made of graphite and clay. Pencil makers can adjust the hardness of the writing core by varying the ratio of graphite to clay. The hardness of the core is usually marked on the outside of a pencil. It’s usually a No.2 or No. 3. The higher the number is, the harder the core of the pencil will be.

There are also different markings you will see on a pencil. There might me an H or a B or an F. The H means that it is a hard pencil. The B tells you how black the mark will be when you write on paper. The F means that you can sharpen the pencil to a fine point. You might also see an HB, HH or HHBBB on a pencil. The HB means that the pencil is hard and black. The HH means that the pencil is very hard. The HHBBB means that the pencil is very hard and very black.

75% of the pencils sold today are yellow. The color yellow is associated with royalty and respect in China. Pencil manufacturers in America started painting pencils bright yellow to communicate this regal feeling and association with China.

Pencils didn’t always have erasers. The first erasers were edible. In 1842, before rubber was invented, they used bread to erase pencil marks. In 1858, Hyman Lipman invented the eraser. Today, most pencils in Europe are sold without erasers.

Some of the most famous pencil users were John Steinbeck, Ernest Hemingway, Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Edison, and Leonardo da Vinci. John Steinbeck used 60 cedar pencils a day.

One pencil can write 45,000 words and can draw a line 35 miles long. It can even write with zero gravity.

The pencil has been a very helpful tool used in our everyday lives. No matter how far technology comes, there will always be a need for a pencil.
The reason why I wrote about the pencil is because we use it every day in school, and I wanted to learn more about it. And I did.

Другие английские тексты для докладов, курсовых по этой категории:

Ваш отзыв